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Term Definition
Advertising research

Advertising research is a specialized form of marketing research conducted to improve the efficiency of advertising. Types of advertising research include: pre-testing and post-testing. Pre-testing, also known as copy-testing, is a form of customized research that predicts in-market performance of an ad, before it airs, by analyzing audience levels of attention, motivation, entertainment, and communication, as well as breaking down the ad’s flow of attention and flow of emotion. Pre-testing is also used to identify weak spots within an ad to improve performance, to make ad more effective, to select images from the spot to use in an integrated campaign’s print ad, to pull out the key moments for use in ad tracking, and to identify branding moments. Post-testing- provide either periodic or continuous in-market research monitoring a brand’s performance, including brand awareness, brand preference, product usage and attitudes. Overall, advertisers use post-testing to plan future advertising campaigns.

Analysis of advertising effectiveness

An evaluation of the extent to which a specific advertisement or advertising campaign meets the objectives specified by the client. There is a wide variety of approaches to evaluation, including inquiry tests, recall tests, and market tests. The measurement approaches include recall of ads and advertising themes, attitudes toward the advertising, persuasiveness, and impact on actual sales levels.

Analysis of attitude to social events

Attitudes are generally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, or event. People can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object, meaning that they simultaneously possess both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. Knowing people’s attitude to some social event gives valuable information for making right product, cost, advertising strategy for some product.

Analysis of political preferences

At analysis of political preferences stage the studding of electoral situation in town is organized. There is a position of electoral groups in tree main ways: ideological consent or disagreement with the government, right or left content of ideology, inclination or absence of inclination to active political protest. Also the level of electoral activity is measured.

ATL/BTL/TTL Advertising

ATL is a type of advertising through media such as television, cinema, radio, print, web banners and web search enqines to promote brands. This type of communication is conventional in nature and is considered impersonal to customers. It differs from BTL advertising, which uses unconventional brand-building strategies, such as direct mail and printed media (and usually involves no motion graphics). It is much more effective when the target group is very large and difficult to define BTL sales promotion is an immediate or delayed incentive to purchase, expressed in cash or in kind, and having short duration. It is efficient and cost-effective for targeting a limited and specific group. It uses less conventional methods than the usual ATL channels of advertising, typically focusing on direct means of communication, most commonly direct mail and e-mail, often using highly targeted lists of names to maximize response rates. BTL services may include those for which a fee is agreed upon and charged up front. BTL is a common technique used for "touch and feel" products (consumer items where the customer will rely on immediate information rather than previously researched items). BTL techniques ensures recall of the brand while at the same time highlighting the features of the product. Another BTL technique involves sales personnel deployed at retail stores near targeted products. This technique may be used to generate trials of newly launched products. More recently, agencies and clients have switched to an "Integrated Communication Approach", or "through the line" approach. In the TTL approach, a mix of ATL and BTL are used to integrate a marketer's efforts and optimize returns from these separate investments. Recently the TTL approach has shifted its emphasis more towards BTL. The idea remains to optimize the return on marketing budget spent by focusing one's energy on winning smaller yet more crucial BTL battles than ATL wars with well-funded competition.

Banner ad

A graphical Internet advertising tool. Users click on the graphic to be taken to another Web site. The term "banner ad" refers to a specific size image, measuring 468 pixels wide and 60 pixels tall (i.e. 468x60), but it is also used as a generic description of all graphical ad formats on the Internet.

Content analysis

The essential part of political campaign is advertising campaign. It is the use of paid media (newspapers, radio, television, etc.) to influence the decisions made for and by groups. These ads are designed by political consultants and the campaign’s staff. The content analysis is used to control and analyze the politician activity.
Content analysis is a methodology in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, intersubjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalizability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented.

Content analysis of website

Content analysis of website includes: analysis of the site’s weight; relevance, density of the title, keywords to the text of page; speed, time of download page; analysis of text on a page; treatment of stop-words; percentage ratio of keywords with the text on a page.

Creating political image

One of the most important ways in which a political candidate or aspiring political candidate can increase their widespread appeal is the image they project. In a political culture where personality and likability are more important than policies and promises, any candidate that stands a chance of winning must present an image to which constituents can relate. Creating a political image must conform to your ideological base as well as reach out to constituents outside your base.

Creating the idea of advertising campaig

An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). Advertising campaigns appear in different media across a specific time frame. Advertising idea is the theme or concept that serves as the organizing thought for an advertisement. Ideas are used to dramatize the product-related information conveyed in advertising.

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